Stonehenge was not constructed overnight. In actuality, the site took 1,500 years to develop. It began in 3000 B.C. as a small earthen henge evolved through time as the building expanded into the Stonehenge. The building process was divided into numerous separate periods, each spanning hundreds of years. Stonehenge's communal, religious, and ethnic mix developed throughout this time period, much as the socioeconomic, spiritual, and ethnic mixture of its ancient Neolithic architects accomplished. Stonehenge will eventually become a mirror, reflecting the progress of ancient Neolithic individuals at the period.
History of Stonehenge
Stonehenge might be the most well-known ancient monument in the world. The initial memorial was an ancient henge monument created around 5,000 years ago, and the distinctive stone circle was established in the late Paleolithic times around 2500 BC. Several burial graves were created nearby during the early Bronze Age. Currently, Stonehenge, along with Avebury, constitutes the center of a World Heritage Site, with a rare concentration of ancient structures.
Phases of Construction
The Initial Phase (3,000 B.C): Stonehenge's construction began roughly 5,000 years ago, in 3,000 B.C. The foundations of the area that would ultimately become Stonehenge were formed during this time period. Around this period, the 'Heel Stone,' which symbolizes the location on the horizon where the Summer Solstice dawn occurs, was constructed near the henge’s gateway. Four 'Station Stones' were also most likely put during this time period; however they might have occurred at any time throughout Phase 2. The first and most ancient element of Stonehenge is a massive earthwork, or 'henge,' comprising of an earthen trench (and associated bank) and 56 different 'Aubrey holes' strewn throughout the site.
The Second Phase (2,900 – 2,600 B.C): Historians and archaeologists are not really clear what happened during this era of development. They don't observe any evidence of activities on the location until the stones eventually start to appear during Phase 3. There are hypotheses, as there usually were. According to one interpretation, the Aubrey Holes are partially replaced, and wooden poles develop in the middle of the henge as well as near the north-eastern doorway during this period. The grouping of poles at the north-eastern gateway might have operated as astronomical event indicators, or they could have been used to form a palisade barrier that operated as an entrance to Stonehenge, guiding visitors down constricted passageways to the ceremonial center.
The Third Phase (2,600 – 1,500 B.C): The most grandiose and brilliant epoch in human history. This era saw the most changes of any era, and it was during this time that Stonehenge took on its current form.
What are the Sarsen Stones?
Sarsen is a form of solid sandstone that can only be found in a few places in England. The massive Sarsen Stones discovered at Stonehenge came from a place 20 miles north of the monument in the Marlborough Downs in North Wiltshire. Due to the massive mass of the stones, transportation by waterways would have been difficult, and they could have only been transported using heavy equipment, ropes, and an enormous manpower must be employed.
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