Hemoglobin normal level
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world, which accounts for about 30% of all causes of death. Of these deaths, high blood pressure is regarded as the most important risk factor and underlying cause of the cardiovascular disease (1-3). Furthermore, such risk factors as high levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), uric acid (UA), and diabetic Mellitus contributed greatly to the development of the cardiovascular disease. Therefore, to maintain the blood pressure values at an appropriate level and decreasing the risk factors to a minimal level is especially important. And it is imperative for us to obtain enough knowledge about factors that are associated with blood pressure or those cardiovascular risk factors.
Previous reports indicate that systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) may increase with increasing hemoglobin (Hb) levels not only in hypertensive patients, but also in healthy patients (4,5). In addition, increased Hb values often accompany insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia in humans (6-8). Conversely, anemia has also been suggested to be responsible for insulin resistance (9), thus suggesting a reasonable postulation that J- or U-shaped relationship might exist between the level of Hb and other cardiovascular risk factors.
However, to our knowledge, studies that demonstrate a relationship between hematological parameters such as Hb and blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors are very few. And drawbacks of these earlier studies were too small individuals included or the lack of adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as age, gender, and heart rate (4,10). In, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between Hb and the traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia by using cross-sectional data in large community-dwelling subjects.
Blood Pressure Measurement
Blood pressure measurements were obtained by manual auscultation with a mercury-gravity manometer via a standardized protocol by trained physicians. Three blood pressure readings were obtained after the participant had been seated, with feet on the ground and back supported, and resting quietly for ≥5 minutes. Each reading was obtained 30 seconds apart, and a fourth reading was obtained if ≥1 of the previous readings had been interrupted (11,12). Mean SBP and DBP for each participant were calculated from the recorded readings.
Because we only obtained blood pressure measurements at a single study visit, and thus, a formal diagnosis of hypertension is not possible, participants were characterized as having “elevated blood pressure” if the mean SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥90 mmHg, and “normal blood pressure” if the mean SBP/DBP were <140/90 mmHg. Furthermore, we recorded such information as date of birth, sex, height and weight. We calculated the body mass index (BMI) by dividing weight (in kilograms) by height squared (in meters squared). All of the participants gave written informed consent before they were included in the modern study.
Hyperuricemia was defined as serum UA ≥420 μmol/L in men or ≥360 μmol/L in women (13). Diabetes was defined as FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L, and/or diabetes history with an antidiabetic drug treatment. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined as subjects without previously confirmed or treated diabetes but with FPG from 5.6 to below 7.0 mmol/L. General obesity was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Dyslipidemia was defined as subjects with TG level ≥1.7 mmol/L and/or high TC ≥5.2 mmol/L (14).
Relationship of Blood pressure with other risk factors
To evaluate the association between Hb and the blood pressure, the enrolled individuals were divided into two group of normal and elevated blood pressure group (described in subjects and data collection section). The binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that whether in men or women, the level of Hb was an important independent risk factor for elevated blood pressure (OR =1.216; 95% CI: 1.138-1.293, P=0.000 in men; OR =1.287; 95% CI: 1.229-1.363, P=0.000 in women).
High hemoglobin levels generally accompany high red blood cell counts. Remember, hemoglobin is found in red blood cells, so the higher your red blood cell count, the higher your hemoglobin level and vice versa.
- Congenital heart disease. This condition can make it hard for your heart to effectively pump blood and deliver oxygen throughout your body. In response, your body sometimes produces additional red blood cells.
- Dehydration. Not having enough fluid can cause red blood cell counts to appear higher because there isn’t as much fluid to balance them.
- Kidney tumors. Some kidney tumors stimulate your kidneys to make excess erythropoietin, a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production.
- Lung disease. If your lungs aren’t working effectively, your body may try to produce more red blood cells to help carry oxygen.
- Polycythemia vera. This condition causes your body to produce extra red blood cells.
Risk FactorsYou may also be more likely to have high hemoglobin levels if you:
- have a family history of disorders that affect red blood cell counts, such as altered oxygen sensing
- live at a high altitude
- recently received a blood transfusion
- Bone marrow disorders. These conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, or aplastic anemia, can all cause low red blood cell counts.
- Kidney failure. When your kidneys aren’t functioning properly, they don’t produce enough of the hormone erythropoietin that stimulates red blood cell production.
- Uterine fibroids. These are tumors that usually aren’t cancerous, but they can cause significant bleeding, leading to lower red blood cell counts.
- Conditions that destroy red blood cells. These include sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, G6PD deficiency, and hereditary spherocytosis.
What about hemoglobin A1c
When having blood work done, you might also see results for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), sometimes called glycated hemoglobin. An HbA1c test measures the amount of glycated hemoglobin, which is hemoglobin that has glucose attached to it, in your blood.Doctors often order this test for people with diabetes.
It helps to give a clearer picture of someone’s average blood glucose levels over the course of 2 to 4 months. Glucose, also called blood sugar, circulates throughout your blood and attaches to hemoglobin.The more glucose in your blood, the more likely you are to have higher levels of glycated hemoglobin.
The glucose stays attached to the hemoglobin for about 120 days. A high HbA1c level indicates that someone’s blood sugar has been high for several months.In most cases, someone with diabetes should aim for an HbA1c level of 7 percent or less. Those without diabetes tend to have HbA1c levels of about 5.7 percent. If you have diabetes and a high HbA1c level, you may need to adjust your medication.