De grasbomen groeien alweer gelukkig..




De natuur start heel snel met herstellen ..

Pitch pine (northeast USA and Appalachians), Jack Pine (northern USA and Canada), and Pond Pine (Southeast USA coastal plain) have serotinous cones like you mentioned---meaning they open only after extreme heat, so that the seeds get first dibs on the soil just after a fire.

Longleaf, Loblolly, Shortleaf, Pond, and Red Pine (that covers the whole Eastern USA) all have extremely thick, insulating bark so that the adults can survive fire. Historically these open pine woodlands, where light hits the ground and encourages the thick growth of ground vegetation that attracted Eastern Elk and Eastern Bison, would have been a common sight throughout the eastern woodlands bioregion.

Grasses in general (especially warm season, C4 grasses like switchgrass) do well after fire because the apical meristem is down out of harms way---they can just regrow the leaf blades, the same as if an herbivore just ate them.

Probably the weirdest of all, though, is the Longleaf Pine of the southern USA. They have most of those adaptations and then one extra: the young seedlings live just like bunchgrass for the first 1-3 years of their life---so they usually don't get wiped out as babies. This makes it all the more likely that they will survive to adulthood in their extremely fire-prone habitat (deep sandy areas on the Southeast coastal plain).


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