A legislation proposed in the parliament for discussion and approval is referred to as a bill whereas when the legislation (bill) is passed it becomes the law. In other words, a legislation is referred to as a bill as long as it is under discussion and debate in the parliament whereas the same is referred to as a law as soon as it is accepted. In this article, we will understand bill and law closely as well as the process of how a how a bill becomes a law?  

How a bill becomes a law: The steps

The conversion of a bill into a law includes seven steps as follows:
•    Creation of bill
•    Agency action
•    Floor action
•    Vote
•    Conference agencies
•    Presidential action
•    Creating the law

Let us closely understand steps involved in how a bill becomes law:

1.    Creation of a bill

The members of the committee or the senators draft a bill. Then, the bill is introduced in the senate by sponsors or the senate members who have prepared the bill. The senators who support the bill are known as cosponsors and are supposed to sign the bill as a token of their support. Following this, a committee is assigned for deliberation.

2.    Agency action

Generally, a committee is assigned to study the subject matter of the bill. In addition, however, an additional sub-committee is also assigned. Further, in this process of how a bill becomes law, the subcommittee has to request the statement from the government committee to hold the hearings so that the experts and the senators can get an opportunity for offering  their testimony concerning the issues of marking up or revising the bill. Then, additionally, the bill is reported to the committee for consideration.

3.    Floor action

Let us look at how floor action is done to understand how the bill is passed. First, the bill is presented to the full house. The bill may also be given back to the senate in some cases for additional debates and approvals. The committee members have to propose improvements or alterations to the bill at this stage.

4.    Vote

Do you know what further happens in how a bill becomes law? Once, all the senators have given their inputs for improvement and amendments, the final version of the bill are ready. Now, it is presented to the house and members of the senate for voting.  

5.    Conference agencies

Likewise, a bill has to be sanctioned by all the chambers of Congress. The senate has to amend and agree to this bill sanctioned, or the bill's description; the bill goes through the two committees, and the committees can resolve any issues or the differences concerning the house and the senate. After that, now it’s time for the conference; the senate, and the house have to send their representatives for negotiation and making a good deal. Further, the final conciliation is now symbolized in a meeting held by the conference testimony. Finally, this sanctioned bill has to be agreed upon by both chambers to be cleared for consideration by the president.

6.    Presidential action

Once the bill is sanctioned, it is now forwarded to the president for approval and his stamp or the signature. Additionally, if permission has been granted, the bill becomes the law. If the president annotates and does not approve the bill, this bill is termed a veto. A vetoed statement can be returned to Congress for reconsideration. After returning it for reconsideration, when the bill is again presented to the president and if the president does not approve the same within ten days, the bill is automatically passed and becomes a law. If Congress suspends all through these ten days, after once, the bill has been sent to the president, and in this duration of ten days, if the president does not sign it, it may be due to any concerns, then it becomes vetoed automatically. This process is referred to as pocket veto.
This step is one of the major steps regarding how bill becomes law, as this step decides if the bill can become law or if the bill has to be adjourned.

7.    Creation of a law

The summation of all the above six steps decides whether a bill will become a law or it has to be withdrawn. In this step, the agency of the Federal Register assigns a public law number. Further, the government headquarters have to print a copy of the law. First of all, the laws are delivered in a single slip, and further, the law is organized in the way it was passed.


To thoroughly understand how a bill becomes law, one must understand the seven steps involved. In the first step, the bill is created. Then, members of the committee have to sponsor the introduction of the bills for deliberation by Congress. In the next step, the committee is formed to review the subject matter of the bill. Further, the bill is ready for the floor action. And in the vote, the House members vote on the latest version of the bill. Then, in conference agencies, a bill has to be sanctioned by all the chambers of Congress. In the next step, the presidential action takes place where it is decided if the bill will be able to become a law or will be sent for reconsideration or amendment. Finally, president’s approval converts a bill into a law.

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How a bill becomes a law