List of Sleep Disorders


Are you tired but unable to sleep or feeling excessively sleepy even after completing 8 hours of sleep? In that case, I would say you might have a sleep disorder. Sleep disorders are conditions that cause changes in the way that you sleep or can affect your sleep pattern. Some of the signs and symptoms of sleep disorders include excessive daytime sleepiness and increased movement during sleep. Here in this article, we are going to understand what are sleeping disorders and some common sleep disorders.  

What are sleep disorders?

Sleep disorders (also known as sleep-wake disorders) are defined by problems with sleep quality, timing, and quantity that cause daily distress and functional impairment. In addition, sleep-wake issues are frequently associated with physical or mental health illnesses such as depression, anxiety, or cognitive difficulties. There are many types of sleep-wake problems, the most common of which is insomnia. Obstructive sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, and parasomnia are also quite frequent sleep disorders. Sleep issues can cause or exacerbate mental illnesses, and they can also be a symptom of other mental illnesses.
According to a study, about 30-40% of US population reports symptoms of insomnia during different times of a year. On an average, approximately 70 million Americans are affected by sleep disorders every year.

Why is sleep important?

Sleep is a basic human requirement that is essential for both physical and mental well-being. There are two main types of sleep that occur in a three-to-five cycle rhythm each night:
●    First, rapid eye movement (REM), during this phase of sleep the muscle tone decreases and one has vivid dreams.
●    Second, non-REM sleep consists of three stages. The NREM sleep is the phase of sleep during which body works on repairing of different tissues and strengthening of immunity system.
It's also crucial to pay attention to how you sleep. Your body operates on a 24-hour cycle (circadian rhythm), which helps you choose when to sleep. The amount of sleep we require varies with age and from individual to individual. However, the National Sleep Foundation estimates that most adults require seven to nine hours of healthy sleep per night.

Sleep Deprivation's Consequences and Coexisting Conditions

Sleep deprivation or poor-quality sleep can have a number of severe consequences. The most noticeable symptoms are exhaustion, poor energy, rage, and difficulties concentrating. Your decision-making abilities, as well as your emotions, may be hampered. Sleep problems are usually associated with symptoms of despair or anxiety. A range of chronic health concerns, including heart disease and diabetes, have been linked to sleep deprivation and excessive sleep. Apart from the factors causing sleep deprivation, sleep deprivation itself can be a symptom of several medical conditions like Parkinson’s disease, osteoarthritis, or congestive heart failure.

List of sleep disorders

•    Insomnia
•    Sleep apnea
•    Narcolepsy
•    Restless leg syndrome
•    Sleep walking

Some commonly diagnosed sleep disorders are discussed in detail here:

Insomnia

The most prevalent sleep condition is insomnia, which is defined as difficulty falling or staying asleep. About a third of adults have insomnia symptoms, 10–15% has issues functioning during the day, and 6–10% has severe enough symptoms to fulfill insomnia disorder criteria. Sleeplessness is thought to affect 40-50 percent of people who also have another mental illness.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
In order to be diagnosed with insomnia disorder, sleep issues must occur at least three times per week for at least three months and cause distress or difficulty at work, school, or other critical aspects of a person's daily functioning. Not everyone who has sleep difficulties is depressed or has difficulty functioning.
A physician will check out other sleep problems, drug side effects, substance abuse, depression, and other medical and mental conditions while diagnosing insomnia. Medications and medical disorders might have an impact on sleep.
Insomnia symptoms include:
●    Trouble falling asleep at night.
●    Getting up in the middle of the night
●    Getting up way too early.
●    Not feeling well rested after a night's sleep.
●    Tiredness or sleepiness during the day.
●    Difficulty remembering tasks, as well as a lack of attention and focus
●    Errors or accidents have increased.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder which could lead to minor discomfort to death of the person suffering from it. In sleep apnea, an individual experiences frequent stopping and starting of breathing during sleep. Repeated episodes of airway blockage during sleep characterise obstructive sleep apnea. Snoring, snorting, gasping, and breathing pauses are all possible side effects. Sleep apnea can be detected by a home sleep study or polysomnography.
Central Sleep Apnea
The brain does not manage breathing effectively during sleep in central sleep apnea, causing the breath to start and stop. It is diagnosed when a sleep study reveals five or more central apneas (breathing pauses) per hour of sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is more common, whereas central sleep apnea is unusual. It is more common in older people, people who have had a heart attack or stroke, and people who use opioid pain relievers. It can be addressed while sleeping with a CPAP or other equipment.
Symptoms of Sleep Apnea
●    Snoring at a high volume
●    Episodes of stopped breathing while sleeping unknowingly
●    During sleep, gasping for air
●    When you first wake up, you have a dry mouth
●    Headache in the morning just after waking up
●    Insomnia (difficulty sleeping)
●    Excessive drowsiness during the day (hypersomnia)
●    Find it difficult to pay attention

Sleep-Related Hypoventilation

Shallow breathing, elevated CO2 levels, and low O2 levels in the blood during sleep are conspicuous signs of sleep-related hypoventilation. It frequently occurs with medical conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or medication or substance use.

Conclusion

Not only are these three, but there are many more types of sleeping disorders that cause problems with sleep. Some people sleep less than usual, and some people sleep a lot more than usual. Both are equally harmful to your body and your mental health. In case, you notice the above symptoms in you or your loved one, don’t hesitate to consult a physician or a sleep expert.

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