#health What are the parts of the human heart?
The contraction and dilation movements of the heart can only be achieved if there is perfect coordination between the different components of the heart.

Next we will see what these parts are, emphasizing both their anatomy, relationships between them and functions they play.

1. Right atrium
The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygen-free blood from the vena cavas and sends it to the right ventricle.

2. Right ventricle
The second of the cavities. It receives oxygen-free blood from the right atrium to send it to the lungs (for carbon dioxide removal and reoxygenation) through the pulmonary arteries.

3. Left atrium
The third of the cavities. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood in the lungs through the pulmonary veins and sends it to the left ventricle.

4. Left ventricle
The fourth of the cavities. The left ventricle receives oxygen-laden blood from the left atrium and sends it to the rest of the body via the aortic artery.

5. Tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve allows communication between right atrium and right ventricle. When opened, deoxygenated blood can pass from the atrium to the ventricle and then be sent to the lungs

6. Mitral or bicuspid valve
The mitral or bicuspid valve is the part of the heart that allows communication between the left atrium and the left ventricle. When opened, oxygenated blood can pass from the atrium to the ventricle and then be sent to the rest of the body for oxygenation of the cells.

7. Aortic sigmoid valve
The sigmoid aortic valve prevents oxygenated blood from returning from the aortic artery to the left ventricle, as the blood must not be backed up. If he's already out of the heart, he can't go back in.

8. Pulmonary sigmoid valve
The pulmonary sigmoid valve prevents deoxygenated blood from returning from the pulmonary arteries to the right ventricle, as there can be no recoil.

9. Atrial septum
The atrial septum is the muscle tissue that separates both atria, since they should not be communicated. It acts like a wall.

10. Ventricular septum
Similarly, the interventricular septum is the muscle tissue that separates the two ventricles, since they should not be communicated either.

11. Sinus or sinoatrial node
Located in the upper part of the right atrium, the sinus node is responsible for generating electrical impulses that allow the heart to contract.

The cells that are part of this sinoatrial node are responsible for the heartbeat and the blood flows out of the ventricles towards the rest of the organs and tissues.

12. Atrioventricular or Aschoff-Tawara node
The atrioventricular node works in conjunction with the sinus node, coordinating the electrical impulse and preventing the ventricles from contracting too quickly, making it difficult for all blood to get inside.

13. Bundle of His and Purkinje fibers
These two elements, the bundle of His and the fibers of Purkinje, are tissues that conduct the electrical impulse throughout the heart, causing the beat to reach all the chambers.

14. Pulmonary arteries
The pulmonary arteries collect oxygen-free blood from the right ventricle and send it to the lungs to remove carbon dioxide through breathing while reabsorbing oxygen. They are the only arteries in the body where blood circulates without oxygen or nutrients.

15. Pulmonary veins
Pulmonary veins are those blood vessels that collect freshly oxygenated blood in the lungs and carry it back to the heart, specifically to the left atrium. As was the case with pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins are also an exception, since they are the only veins in which oxygen-rich blood circulates.

16. Aortic artery
Leaving from the left ventricle, the aortic artery is the one that sends blood rich in oxygen and nutrients to the rest of the body. It is the main artery in the body (and the largest), which branches into smaller ones to supply oxygen to all organs and tissues.

17. Cava veins
The vena cavas collect oxygenated blood from the various tissues of the body and insert it back into the right atrium to start the oxygenation process again.

18. Epicardium
The epicardium is the viscous membrane that lines the outside of the heart. With a significant amount of adipose tissue (fat), the epicardium is made up of two layers of cells that protect the heart and where the main arteries and veins mentioned above are born.

19. Myocardium
The myocardium is the muscle tissue of the heart. Made up of cells called cardiomyocytes and located below the epicardium, the myocardium is a muscle that works involuntarily allowing the heart to contract.

20. Endocardium
The endocardium, like the epicardium, is a membrane but in this case it covers the inner parts of the heart. That is, it forms the lining of the atria and ventricles.

21. Papillary muscle
Located inside the two ventricles, the papillary muscles arise from the endocardium and extend to the mitral and tricuspid valves, depending on which ventricle is. They act as tensors during muscle contraction of the heart, preventing the backflow of blood into the atria, which would have serious health consequences. Blood to the ventricles can never return to the atria.

22. Moderator band
The moderator band is located exclusively in the right ventricle and helps the papillary muscle perform its function, as well as facilitating and coordinating the transmission of the electrical impulse.

23. Tendon cords
The tendon cords or heart cords are tendons that connect the papillary muscles to the mitral or tricuspid valves, allowing the tension they generate to be more efficient.

24. Foramen ovale
The foramen ovale is a hole between the atria that is due to the fact that during the development of the fetus, the right and left atrium are communicating. With age, this opening closes as the tissue of the atrial septum becomes sealed.

Although before the first year of life this hole has usually closed, there are cases in which it does not, which can lead to serious health problems.

The 24 parts of the Heart

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