Genomic structure, function, evolution, mapping, and editing are all investigated in genomics, a multidisciplinary field of biology. A genome is a collection of DNA that contains all of an organism's genes as well as its three-dimensional hierarchical organization. Genomic research aims to characterise and quantify all of an organism's genes, as well as their interrelationships and impacts on the organism as a whole, in contrast to genetics, which focuses on individual genes and their functions in inheritance. Genes can direct the creation of proteins with the help of enzymes and messenger molecules. Proteins, in turn, are responsible for the creation of body structures such as organs and tissues, as well as chemical reaction management and information transfer between cells. The assembly and analysis of whole genomes utilising high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatics to assemble and research their function and structure is also part of genomics. Advances in genomics has initiated a new era of discovery-based research and systems biology, making even the most complicated biological systems, such as the brain, more understandable.

Applications of genomics
Medicine, biotechnology, anthropology, and other social sciences have all benefitted from genomic research. Some of them are listed below.
Genomic medicine: Clinicians and biomedical researchers can now acquire a massive amount of genomic data on large study populations thanks to next-generation genomic technology. When paired with modern informatics tools in illness researches that integrate many types of data with genomic data, researchers can better understand the genetic bases of medication response and disease. A Stanford team led by Euan Ashley developed the first tools for the medical interpretation of a human genome as part of their early efforts to apply the genome to medicine. This is a remarkable discovery and a lot more to be done.
Bioengineering and synthetic biology: Synthetic biology has become more advanced as our understanding of genomics has grown. In 2010, the Mycoplasma laboratorium, a partly synthetic bacterium generated from the genome of Mycoplasma genitalium, was announced by J. Craig Venter Institute.
Population genomics: Population genomics has become a popular field of study in which genomic sequencing tools are utilised to conduct large-scale comparisons of DNA sequences among populations, going beyond the limitations of traditional population genetic markers like short-range PCR products or microsatellites. Population genomics investigates genome-wide impacts in order to better comprehend microevolution and learn about a population's phylogenetic history and demography. Many different domains, such as evolutionary biology, ecology, biogeography, conservation biology, and fisheries management, use population genomic approaches. Landscape genomics evolved from landscape genetics to employ genomic approaches to find links between environmental and genetic variation patterns.
Conservation genomics: Conservationists can employ genome sequencing data to better assess genetic characteristics that are important for species conservation, such as population genetic diversity or if an individual is heterozygous for a recessive hereditary genetic condition.

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What is genomics