Hypertension, often known as high or increased blood pressure, is a disorder in which the blood vessels have abnormally high pressure for an extended period.

The force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it is pumped by the heart causes blood pressure.

The heart has to work harder to pump blood when the pressure is high.


Blood Pressure Readings

  • Normal    
systolic: less than 120 mm Hg
diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg

  • Prehypertension
systolic: 120–139 mm Hg
diastolic: 80–89 mm Hg    

  • Hypertension
systolic: 140 mm Hg or higher
diastolic: 90 mm Hg or higher    

What problems does high blood pressure cause?

The higher your blood pressure, the more likely you are to acquire other health problems such as heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.

Hypertension is a significant medical condition that can put your heart, brain, kidneys, and other organs at risk. It is a leading cause of death.

Symptoms:

Headaches,
shortness of breath, or nosebleeds are common signs and symptoms of high blood pressure

Causes:

  • Kidney disease
  • Diabetes
  • Glomerulonephritis: damage to filters inside the kidneys narrowing of the arteries supplying the kidneys
  • Hormone problems – such as an underactive thyroid, an overactive thyroid, Cushing's syndrome hyperaldosteronism.
  • Lupus is a disease in which the immune system targets bodily parts such as the skin, joints, and organs.
  • Scleroderma is a skin ailment that creates thickening and can cause organ and blood vessel problems.

Risk factors:


  • Unhealthy diet: Hypertension can be caused by a diet that is too high in sodium and too low in potassium.
  • Obesity: is defined as being overweight means your heart has to work harder to circulate blood and oxygen throughout your body. Use of Tobacco
  • Tobacco: Nicotine elevates blood pressure, and lowers the quantity of oxygen your blood can carry.
  • Too much salt in your diet.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat inflammation.
  • Certain chronic illnesses: Diabetes, renal disease, and sleep apnea are among chronic illnesses that might increase your risk of high blood pressure.
  • History of the family. High blood pressure is a condition that tends to run in families.

Complications:


  • Peripheral Artery Disease: it puts you at risk for stroke or heart attack, and it can even lead to gangrene and amputation.
  • Kidney Impairment
It's more difficult for the kidneys to complete their work when blood capillaries in the kidneys become weaker and narrowed as a result of high blood pressure damage.

  • Heart Attack: occurs when the blood supply to the heart muscle tissue is cut off, which is frequently caused by excessive blood pressure.
  • A stroke occurs when a clot plugs a blood vessel. Strokes can be fatal because the damaged part of the brain no longer receives the necessary nutrition and oxygen, and it begins to die.
  • Vision Loss: This is known as hypertensive retinopathy, and it can result in eye haemorrhage, blurred vision, or blindness.

What's hypertension?