What To Do If There Is A Nuclear Attack?

What To Do If There Is A Nuclear Attack?

The US Federal Emergency Management Agency has published a manual on what steps to take in the event of a nuclear attack

Russia's conflict with Ukraine has brought words like "radiation" or "nuclear bomb" back into our vocabulary. In addition, with the takeover of the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant, suspicions of a possible nuclear attack have begun. Likewise, searches on the net for potassium iodide have also increased.

What would be the steps before a possible nuclear attack? Many people ask this question, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States, FEMA, has published a manual to clear the doubts of all people.

Stages Of A Nuclear Explosion

First of all, a nuclear explosion has several stages or phases:
- Bright Flash: When the explosive is detonated, a very large beam of light appears. This flash can cause temporary blindness, lasting less than a minute.
- Shock wave - the first "impact" of the bomb. This could cause injuries and damage to structures several kilometers away from the explosion, as well as death.
- Radiation: Radioactive elements are released and can damage cells in the body, especially if a person is exposed to them for a long time.
- Fire and heat: every explosion causes them. These can cause burn injuries, structural damage, and even death.
- Electromagnetic pulse: is the radiation from a large explosion. This effect can damage electronic components several kilometers away and cause interruptions in communications.
- Radioactive fallout: is the precipitation of radioactive and visible dirt and debris. They can cause illness.


How To Protect Yourself From a Nuclear Bomb

FEMA establishes three phases with different measures to safeguard yourself in the event of a nuclear attack:

1. Be safe

If there are signs that a nuclear attack may occur, the main thing is to be safe. To do this, the best option is to enter a building, preferably if it is made of brick or concrete since they will protect more from radiation. Once there, it will be crucial to stay away from windows, walls and the ceiling, just in case landslides occur.

Also, if the property has a garage or basement, those places will be even more isolated than the interior of the building.

On the other hand, if a person is in a building after the explosion of a nuclear bomb, he or she should remove contaminated clothing and wash it with soap and water to remove possible radioactive particles.

2. Stay inside

FEMA recommends that people stay inside the shelter for 24 hours unless an authority gives other instructions. In addition, it suggests that you do not go out to look for relatives or other people and that pets also remain in the shelter.

When eating, it is important that previously uncovered products are not consumed, as they may have received radiation and be dangerous to the body.

3. Stay informed

Telephone services and other communications such as the Internet may not be available after the explosion. Given this disadvantage, FEMA recommends carrying a portable battery-powered radio. This device will allow everyone who is safe to stay informed.

Bonus: Prepare an Emergency Kit

If the authorities give an early warning that a nuclear bomb is about to explode, it is best to stock up on a few items that may be useful:

- Water for each person (about three liters a day)
- Canned or ready-to-eat food
- Flashlight and extra batteries


How is a Nuclear Bomb Different From an Atomic Bomb?

First of all, a bomb is an "explosive device provided with a device so that it explodes at the right time". However, an atomic bomb, like the ones that fell on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II, is not the same as a nuclear or hydrogen bomb, which is what is being talked about now.

To begin with, both work through different systems. As explained in some media, the nuclear bomb is a fusion device and the atomic bomb works through a fission process.

What is Nuclear Fission and Fusion?

These are two opposite processes. While fission is a principle by which atoms are divided, through fusion simple atoms join to form larger ones. By joining these minute amounts of matter, the atoms, fusion releases more radioactive particles and energy than nuclear fission.

This difference in energy is also reflected in the damage caused by the pumps. While an atomic device works through fission and its effect is great, a nuclear or hydrogen bomb will release even more energy, so its impact will be stronger.

However, according to Time, both bombs are lethal and can kill people in seconds or hours due to radiation. The explosions from these bombs would also burn and cause structures and buildings to collapse instantly.


How Atomic and Nuclear Bombs Work

In the case of the fission or atomic bomb, these artifacts require a small amount of energy to work. However, the nuclear fusion bomb needs a large amount of energy to produce that process between the atoms. Through a nuclear explosion, the elements deuterium and tritium fuse, which together form hydrogen, and that is why these types of artifacts are also considered hydrogen bombs.

Also, since fusion bombs require a large amount of energy to detonate, fission or atomic bomb is used for this. The mix of the two makes it a highly destructive weapon. In addition, this process, in which several pumps are involved, also needs a very high temperature to start.

What Happens If a Hydrogen Bomb is Dropped

No country has ever used a hydrogen bomb in a war. However, there are nine countries that currently have nuclear weapons: Russia, the United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, India, North Korea, and Israel.

According to the experts consulted by Time, a hydrogen bomb would cause a larger explosion than those experienced in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the atomic bombs, which would lead to greater shock waves, radiation, and higher heat.

I wish that history does not repeat itself again.

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